• Author
    Manal Blanchard
  • 15 December 2021


The history of blackjack causes fierce debate in the professional environment, since the most likely version has not yet been approved. However, Italy is more likely to be considered the country of origin of blackjack. In 1440, a mention of the game of Thirty-One (Trentuno) was discovered in a sermon by Bernadino from Siena against gambling. After this sermon, thousands of dice, boards and playing cards were burned.[4] Thirty One is the direct progenitor of modern blackjack, since the rules of the game almost completely repeat it, except that you can score a maximum of not 21, but 31 points.


Player Playing at the table against the casino.
Dealer "Croupier" A casino worker who acts as a deck carder.
Hand A set of player or dealer cards. Usually, casino rules prohibit players from touching their cards.
Tracking The player's tracking of the location of the cards during the game, using this information on the next shuffle.
Shuffle A complete "game cycle", starting with the mixing of the deck, and ending with the release of the split card.
Shoe, shoe (English shoe - boot) Special device for card games in the casino. The deck is shuffled and inserted into the shoe, from which the cards are then dealt.
Chip (English chip) A flat small object of a round, square or octagonal shape, on which its denomination is written, can be exchanged for cash at the casino cash desk.


It is mistakenly believed that the goal is to score as many points as possible, but not more than 21. In fact, the goal is to beat the dealer (dealer). The game uses from one to eight decks. Due to the fact that the probability of a blackjack combination with a larger number of decks is lower, the player's advantage decreases with an increase in the number of decks. When playing with a shuffle machine, it is considered that an endless deck is used. At the end of the game, when about a third of the cards remain (the dealer sets the exact value by placing a special card in the so-called "shoe" by eye), the decks are shuffled. When playing with one deck, most often it is shuffled after each game.

The values of the points of each card: from two to ten - from 2 to 10, respectively, for the ace - 1 or 11 (11 until the total amount is more than 21, then 1), for the so-called. pictures (king, queen, jack) - 10.

If the player and the dealer have the same number of points on their hands, then this situation is called “exactly”: abroad it is called push. In such a situation, everyone stays at their bets, no one wins or loses. Although there are exceptions in the casino, and when pushing, the casino wins.

Before the distribution of cards, players make bets by placing chips on the corresponding fields of the gaming table. After the first card is dealt, players are prohibited from betting or touching their chips.

The dealer deals cards (usually from one or two decks of cards, but more often from a shoe containing at least four decks): two cards to each player, deals one card to himself (in the USA it is customary to deal two cards to the dealer, one of which is open and the other - closed, that is, it is on the table face down). All cards are opened at once (visible to both the dealer and the player).

If the player has 21 points immediately after the deal (that is, the player has an ace and a ten-point card), then this situation is called blackjack. In this case, the player is immediately paid a win of 3 to 2 (that is, 1.5 times his bet). The exception is when the dealer's first card (open) comes across 10, a picture or an ace. In this case, there is a possibility that the dealer will also have a blackjack, so the blackjack player is offered to either take a 1 to 1 win (only if the dealer's first card is an ace), or wait until the end of the game (and in case dealer no blackjack, get a win of 3 to 2).

Further, players who do not have blackjack are offered a choice of either taking another card (in this case, the player must tell the dealer “card” or “more”, English hit me), or stay with those cards (and that amount of points) , which are on his hand (in this case, the player must tell the dealer "enough" or "enough").

As a rule, if the player has a total of 21 after taking a new card, the dealer does not ask him more and moves on to the next player.

If the player's score exceeds 21 after drawing a new card, then this situation is called "brute force". The dealer says "a lot" and removes the player's bet in favor of the casino.

If the dealer has 21 points in the first two cards (blackjack), then all players (except those who also have blackjack) lose. Those with blackjack stand by their bets unless they have previously chosen to take a 1 to 1 win or if they have not insured their hand against blackjack.

In some cases, depending on what cards the player has in his hand, the dealer may offer him additional options (see below).

After all players have finished taking cards, the dealer says "to himself" and deals the cards to himself. The general rule of blackjack is that the dealer must stop as soon as he hits 17 points or more and must take until he reaches it (even if everyone who has not busted has less points). In different casinos, the rule may vary whether the dealer should stop in a situation if he has an ace and a six (that is, 7 or 17 points in his hand). Usually this rule is written on the game table.

At the final scoring at the end of the round, the cards of the other players do not matter to you, the game is played only against the dealer, that is, only the cards of the player and the dealer are compared, the cards and bets of parallel players are not taken into account.